Erbil_Citadel_2D
Erbil_Citadel_2D
Erbil_Citadel_2D
Erbil_Citadel_Statue3_3D
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Erbil_Citadel_Statue4_3D
Mubarak Ben Ahmed Sharaf-Aldin
Mubarak Ben Ahmed Sharaf-Aldin
Mubarak Ben Ahmed Sharaf-Aldin
Erbil_Citadel_Statue6_3D
Erbil_Citadel_Statue6_3D
Erbil_Citadel_Statue6_3D
Erbil_Citadel2_3D
Erbil_Citadel2_3D
Erbil_Citadel2_3D
Erbil_Citadel37_3D
Erbil_Citadel37_3D
Erbil_Citadel37_3D
Erbil_Citadel25_3D
Erbil_Citadel25_3D
Erbil_Citadel25_3D
Erbil_Citadel27_3D
Erbil_Citadel27_3D
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Erbil_Citadel30_3D
Erbil_Citadel30_3D
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Erbil_Citadel31_3D
Erbil_Citadel31_3D
Erbil_Citadel31_3D
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Erbil_Citadel32_3D
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Erbil_Citadel38_3D
Erbil_Citadel38_3D
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Erbil_Citadel40_3D
Erbil_Citadel40_3D
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Erbil_Citadel41_3D
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Erbil_Citadel42_3D
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Erbil_Citadel-Statue_3D
Erbil_Citadel-Statue_3D
Erbil_Citadel-Statue_3D
Erbil_Citadel-Statue2_3D
Erbil_Citadel-Statue2_3D
Erbil_Citadel-Statue2_3D
Erbil_City_3D
Erbil_City_3D
Erbil_City_3D
Erbil_City2_3D
Erbil_City2_3D
Erbil_City2_3D

 

The Erbil citadel is located in the middle of greater Erbil the capital of the Kurdish Regional Government in Iraq, 350 kilometers northeast of Baghdad and 80 kilometers southeast of Mosul. The site rises some 30 metres above the city and is elliptical in shape with a long axis of 430 m and a short axis of around 340 m. The overall area is 102,000 square metres.

The date of Erbil’s foundation is unknown, as it appears to have been in more or less continuous use since the beginnings of urbanization in Mesopotamia.  Written and archaeological records indicate that it was once called Arbela, an important Assyrian city.  In the 20th century, over the course of construction some of the structures were destroyed.  A large restoration project began in 2007 and it is ongoing.

The Erbil citadel is among the oldest continually inhabited towns in the word.  It is a multi-layered archaeological site that has shown through excavation layers of previous settlements.  The existing site consists of approximately 250 buildings.  The Ottoman fingerprint is most recognizable in the layout and street pattern.  The outer wall is the most distinctive feature and contains approximately 100 houses from mainly the 19th century.  Houses from the 19th – 20th centuries are a hallmark of what can be seen in the current citadel, and some of these form the façade of the fortress wall.  While the citadel used to house several religious buildings over the millennia it has been in use, now only one, the Mulla Afandi Mosque, stands.  A traditional hammam, or public bath, is also located in the middle of the town.

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